Saturday, February 25, 2017

Impact of a post-arrest consult team


From a recent study:

Objective: To evaluate whether a Post-Arrest Consult Team improved care and outcomes for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Design: Prospective cohort study of Post-Arrest Consult Team implementation at two hospitals, with concurrent controls from 27 others.

Setting: Twenty-nine hospitals within the Strategies for Post-Arrest Care Network of Southern Ontario, Canada.

Patients: We included comatose adult nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients surviving more than or equal to 6 hours after emergency department arrival who had no contraindications to targeted temperature management.

Intervention: The Post-Arrest Consult Team was an advisory consult service to improve 1) targeted temperature management, 2) assessment for percutaneous coronary intervention, 3) electrophysiology assessment, and 4) appropriately delayed neuroprognostication.

Measurements and Main Results: We used generalized linear mixed models to explore the association between Post-Arrest Consult Team implementation and performance of targeted processes. We included 1,006 patients. The Post-Arrest Consult Team was associated with a significant reduction over time in rates of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy within 72 hours of emergency department arrival on the basis of predictions of poor neurologic prognosis (ratio of odds ratios, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02–0.98). Post-Arrest Consult Team was not associated with improved successful targeted temperature management (ratio of odds ratios, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.31–2.65), undergoing angiography (ratio of odds ratios, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.17–21.04), receiving electrophysiology consultation (ratio of odds ratios, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.11–8.16), or functional survival (ratio of odds ratios, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.19–2.94).

Conclusions: Implementation of a Post-Arrest Consult Team reduced premature withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy but did not improve rates of successful targeted temperature management, coronary angiography, formal electrophysiology assessments, or functional survival for comatose patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

This is an appealing idea to me. Although the consult team did not have much impact in this study I believe it is an idea worth considering which may be of value in some institutions when used for all it is worth.

Friday, February 24, 2017

Point of care echo and diastolic dysfunction


In this study emergency physicians were competent in the identification of diastolic dysfunction after limited training but not in the classification of DD.

Thursday, February 23, 2017

Point of care chest ultrasound


Here is a review of its usefulness as a clinical tool, excluding cardiac applications.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Pnuemonia in comatose patients post cardiac arrest


75% of patients developed pneumonia!


Methods: We identified consecutive patients undergoing targeted temperature management following OHCA secondary to a shockable rhythm (ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation). To address survival bias we excluded patients who died within 48 hours of hospital admission. We then compared clinical outcomes between patients with and without pneumonia. The primary outcome was severe neurologic dysfunction as defined by a cerebral performance category (CPC) ≥3; secondary outcomes included duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in hospital and in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU).

Results: Of 116 patients included (mean age 57 years, mean downtime 24 min, 22% female, 47% STEMI), 87 (75%) developed pneumonia. Patients who developed pneumonia were older; baseline patient and index event characteristics were otherwise comparable between the two cohorts. The most common pathogens isolated included Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcal species and Klebsiella species. Piperacillin/tazobactam and cephalosporins were used to treat the majority of patients. The incidence of the primary outcome (28%) was comparable in patients with versus without pneumonia. However, compared to patients without pneumonia, OHCA patients with pneumonia required longer periods of mechanical ventilation and longer lengths of stay in hospital and in the CICU.

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Your GI bleeding patient is on antiplatelet therapy. Should you transfuse platelets?


From a recent retrospective cohort study:

Background & Aims

Antiplatelet agents decrease cardiovascular events but increase gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Guidelines propose platelet transfusion for patients who take antiplatelet agents and have serious GIB. We investigated whether such patients are at decreased risk for rebleeding or increased risk for cardiovascular events after platelet transfusion.

Methods

We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with GIB admitted to Yale-New Haven Hospital from 2008 to 2013 who were taking antiplatelet agents and had platelet counts higher than 100 × 109/L. Cases (patients who received platelet transfusion, n = 204) were matched with controls (no platelet transfusions, n = 204) for sex, age, and GIB location. The primary outcome was recurrent GIB. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics.

Results

Cases and controls had similar proportions of GIB due to non-variceal upper GIB (117 of 204, 57% vs 115 of 204, 56%) and colonic GIB (80 of 204, 39% vs 81 of 204, 40%). Cases had more severe GIB than controls, which was based on lower blood pressure and hemoglobin levels and higher heart rates and the proportion admitted to intensive care. Univariate analyses showed that higher proportions of cases had major cardiovascular events (23% vs 13% for controls), died (7% vs 1% for controls), or had hospital stay longer than 4 days (47% vs 33% for controls). However, multivariable analyses showed a significant difference between cases and controls in only risk of death (odds ratio, 5.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–27.1). The adjusted odds ratio for recurrent bleeding was 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 0.73–3.05) for cases vs controls.

Conclusions

The use of platelet transfusions in patients with GIB who are taking antiplatelet agents without thrombocytopenia did not reduce rebleeding but was associated with higher mortality. At least some of the increase in mortality could be due to the residual bias of an observational study, but because of the lack of benefit, we do not support the use of platelet transfusions in patients with GIB who are taking antiplatelet agents.





Sunday, February 19, 2017

Genetic variants and the efficacy of clopidogrel in stroke and TIA




Background: The association of genetic polymorphisms and clopidogrel efficacy in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between genetic polymorphisms, especially CYP2C19 genotype, and clopidogrel efficacy for ischemic stroke or TIA.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE from their inceptions to June 24, 2016. Studies that reported clopidogrel-treated patients with stroke or TIA and with information on genetic polymorphisms were included. The end points were stroke, composite vascular events, and any bleeding.

Results: Among 15 studies of 4762 patients with stroke or TIA treated with clopidogrel, carriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles (*2, *3, and *8) were at increased risk of stroke in comparison with noncarriers (12.0% versus 5.8%; risk ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.57–2.35; P less than 0.001). Composite vascular events were also more frequent in carriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles than in noncarriers (13.7% versus 9.4%; risk ratio, 1.51, 95% confidence interval, 1.10–2.06; P=0.01), whereas bleeding rates were similar (2.4% versus 3.1%; risk ratio, 0.89, 95% confidence interval, 0.58–1.35; P=0.59). There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity among the included studies for stroke, but there was for composite vascular events. Genetic variants other than CYP2C19 were not associated with clinical outcomes, with the exception that significant associations of PON1, P2Y12, and COX-1 with outcomes were observed in 1 study.

Conclusions: Carriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles are at greater risk of stroke and composite vascular events than noncarriers among patients with ischemic stroke or TIA treated with clopidogrel.